27 January 2021
In the Fox IT blog post “Abusing cloud services to fly under the radar“, Wouter Jansen reports on a threat actor who got illegal access to the networks of high-tech and aviation companies and stayed undetected for more than 3 years. The post gives a great introduction to the MITRE ATT&CK framework, absolutely recommendable.
In section Initial access we read: “From this portal it was possible to launch the web-based VPN. The VPN was protected by two-factor authentication (2FA) by sending an SMS with a one-time password (OTP) to the user account’s primary or alternate phone number. It was possible to configure an alternate phone number for the logged in user account at the company portal” (my emphasis).
This describes a well-known issue with self-services: Once successfully authenticated against the company network a second factor often can be changed without enhanced authentication. Self-Services are designed with best user experience and responsiveness in mind, IT security often plays a subordinate role.
From my point of view, exchange of the second factor should always be approved by a line manager or his proxy. This may take a while, but it makes life much harder for an attacker. In addition, the likelihood of detection goes up.
Here is some food for thought: Are your security self-services designed with security in mind?
Have a great week!
- Jansen W. Abusing cloud services to fly under the radar [Internet]. Fox-IT International blog. 2021 [zitiert 26. Januar 2021]. Verfügbar unter: https://blog.fox-it.com/2021/01/12/abusing-cloud-services-to-fly-under-the-radar/
13 May 2018
Report “Two-factor authentication hackable” (1) published by Doug Olenick’ on May 10, 2018 at SC Media US is really frightening.
Two-factor authentication (TFA) is a great means to secure users of web services against phishing attacks. I’m aware that TFA with SMS or authenticator apps is not 100% secure because the login is not bound to the service, which means that TFA is prone to Man-in-the-Middle attacks. But the title of the report suggests that TFA is no longer secure at all.
A closer look at the report shows that Doug Olenick describes a Man-in-the-Middle attack initiated by a fake URL in an e-mail. The URL points to a web services which acts as a proxy for LinkedIn in this case. The proxy collects the users account details and the session cookie. Since the session cookie contains all details required to login to LinkedIn the attacker can hijack the users account without being requested of the password and the second factor.
For details about the attack see Kuba Gretzky’s post “Evilginx – Advanced Phishing with Two-factor Authentication Bypass” (2).
What can we learn from these reports?
TFA is vulnerable against phishing and Man-in-the-Middle attacks. User awareness and anti-phishing training become not obsolete once TFA with authenticator app or SMS is rolled out in an organization.
Although TFA is vulnerable this should not stop you from implementing TFA.
FIDO U2F Key (6)
If you want to get it right the first time implement TFA with hardware keys, e.g. FIDO U2F keys. With hardware keys the user login is bound to the original service, which means that only the real site can authenticate with the service. For details see the FIDO alliance (3) homepage or the Yubico (4) homepage. For a great user story see report “Google Eliminates Account Takeover with the YubiKey” (5).
Have a great week.
- Olenick D. Two-factor authentication hackable [Internet]. SC Media US. 2018 [cited 2018 May 13]. Available from: https://www.scmagazine.com/network-security/two-factor-authentication-hackable/article/765135/
Gretzky K. Evilginx – Advanced Phishing with Two-factor Authentication Bypass [Internet]. BREAKDEV. 2017 [cited 2018 May 13]. Available from: http://breakdev.org/evilginx-advanced-phishing-with-two-factor-authentication-bypass
FIDO Alliance. https://fidoalliance.org/ [Internet]. FIDO Alliance. [cited 2018 May 13]. Available from: https://fidoalliance.org/
U2F – FIDO Universal 2nd Factor Authentication [Internet]. Yubico. [cited 2018 May 13]. Available from: https://www.yubico.com/solutions/fido-u2f/
Yubico.com. Google Eliminates Account Takeover with the YubiKey [Internet]. Yubico. [cited 2018 May 13]. Available from: https://www.yubico.com/about/reference-customers/google/
Picture Credits: Amazon.de. [cited 2018 May 13]. Available from: https://www.amazon.de/Yubico-Y-123-FIDO-U2F-Security/dp/B00NLKA0D8