Tag Archives: WannaCry

Why is the industry such vulnerable against WannaCry and NotPetya style attacks? Part II.

16 July 2017

In part one of this post I discussed the impact of the aging IT infrastructure on the industry’s vulnerability against WannaCry and NotPetya style attacks. Part II deals with the OS basics.

Built-in features of the Windows operating system

Windows is the hacker’s paradise. Not because of the endless stream of vulnerabilities. I my opinion, Microsoft does a good job in managing this.

But because Windows is designed to support the efficient administration of networks with thousands of windows workstations, servers, users and applications.

The authorization subsystem (Active Directory) allows the assignment of fine grained permissions to users and groups to whatever resources, and the authorization check before access to resources in near real-time. It is highly scalable to support a single office LAN as well as a segmented global network.

Built-in utilities like Admin Shares, WMI (Windows Management Instrumentation), netsh, ipconfig, and the net command enable administrators to query and to change workstation, server and user settings across the network and to support efficient software distribution and troubleshooting. Windows Server Update Service (WSUS) supports the administrators in keeping the known vulnerabilities patched.

Everything is of course scriptable with the Windows Command Shell, Powershell and VBScript. All utilities can be leveraged up to a certain extent by every user and fully by administrators.

And of course, also by malware or cyber-criminals. Once a cyber-criminal managed to get on your network with e.g. a RAT (Remote Access Toolkit), he can walk across your network and do his malicious work with just the built-in tools. A download of utilities from a C&C (command and Control) server is not necessary. With this, the cyber-criminal is nearly invisible and he will stay nearly invisible for a long time if he makes no errors.

The Principle of least privilege is implemented in Windows at all levels of the OS stack. This is ensured by the Secure Development Lifecycle (SDL), which is the mandatory Microsoft development policy since 2004. Thus, under normal conditions, the Windows built-in security features would limit the impact of a malware.

Unfortunately, software failures cannot be avoided by the SDL because they are systemic errors – we build them during development right into the software. Once a process state triggers such a systemic error and someone finds a method to reproduce the error condition, the error becomes a vulnerability, e.g. MS017-10. This is no problem unless an exploit is published which allows a cyber-criminal to leverage the vulnerability for e.g. privilege escalation. With this, he gets full access to all the built-in tools and to all processes, including the authorization subsystem.

But even if exploiting a vulnerability leads not to a privilege escalation only some patience is needed. Just probe the network until a user is found who works with permanent administrative privileges. If such a session is hijacked, a cyber-criminal gets full access to all tools and the authorization subsystem on the computer.

With administrative privileges the attacker or malware can dump the authorization subsystem on the computer and extract either the password hashes or the clear text passwords. The example below shows an extract created by MIMIKATZ on a Windows 7 Enterprise Editon Workstation.

C:\Program Files (x86)\mimikatz\x64>mimikatz
.#####.   mimikatz 2.1.1 (x64) built on Jun 18 2017 18:46:28
.## ^ ##.  "A La Vie, A L'Amour"
## / \ ##  /* * *
## \ / ##   Benjamin DELPY `gentilkiwi` ( benjamin@gentilkiwi.com )
'## v ##'   http://blog.gentilkiwi.com/mimikatz             (oe.eo)
'#####'                                     with 21 modules * * */
....

Authentication Id : 0 ; 315690 (00000000:0004d12a)
Session           : Interactive from 1
User Name         : kjochem
Domain            : WIN-2OLSA000OLM
Logon Server      : WIN-2OLSA000OLM
Logon Time        : 16.07.2017 21:31:24
SID               : S-1-5-21-3248755352-2707638487-1840279341-1000
msv :
[00000003] Primary
* Username : kjochem
* Domain   : WIN-2OLSA000OLM
* NTLM     : dd94b116548a739e24ad775193c2d13b <--- Password hash
    ….. 
wdigest :
* Username : kjochem
* Domain   : WIN-2OLSA000OLM
* Password : #Not very12strange! <--- Clear text password
kerberos :
* Username : kjochem
* Domain   : WIN-2OLSA000OLM
* Password : (null)
ssp :
credman :

The extracted passwords can be used for direct login to further systems, the password hashes in Pass-the-Hash attacks on further nodes. In any case the chance of detection is low since the attacker behaves like a normal user.

This is the way NotPetya works and other malware worked in the past and will work in future.

Windows is highly optimized to allow cost effective operation of networks of thousands of computers. This leads automatically to misconfigurations, e.g. through domain based technical accounts with high privileges on all workstations and servers. In combination with users working with permanent administrative privileges the cyber criminal’s life is simplified.

What are mitigating measures?

The selection below makes no claim to be complete.

Migration to Windows 10.

Drop all old-style transportation and authentication protocols during this process. Migration to Windows 10 is the first choice because baseline security in Windows 10 is higher than in Windows 7. For example, the issue with the plain text passwords in the authorization subsystem is gone. But this is not helpful in industry because we must deal for at least 5 to 10 years with Windows 7 or Windows 2008 server and old-style protocols.

Short and mid-term mitigation measures.

  • Reduce the number of users working with permanent administrative rights to zero. This is a leadership task!
  • Implement priority patching of critical systems, especially for those on the perimeter to the production networks.
  • Review all firewall rules. Focus on required connections, limit the use of the SMB protocol as far as possible.
  • Review all technical users. Limit their functionality to the local systems and lowest possible privileges, if possible.
  • Roll out a security incident detection tool (SIEM) to all clients and servers. For example, dumping of processes in memory of a workstation or server is a clear indicator for a hacking attempt. Immediate action upon such events is required.
  • Implement privileged account and session management, in the best case with one-time passwords which are changed after the session ends.
  • Apply the measures to mitigate Pass-the-Hash attacks to all Windows networks. For details please see https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/download/details.aspx?id=36036.

Long-term measures.

  • Microsoft should build a production friendly Windows with limited functionality. This Windows should have a much smaller attack surface than the standard multi-purpose Windows systems of today.
  • The dependency on the SMB protocol for exchange of data between the office and the production networks should be reduced, in the best case to zero.

Have a great week!

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Some thoughts on “Ransomware a real risk for SCADA networks”

5 June 2017

By now the ‘Air gapping’ myth should be expunged from every ICS/SCADA manager on earth.” I really like this statement from Daniel Cohen-Sason, published on 23 May 2017 in the CYBERBIT blog.

From my point of view, the ‘Air Gap’ era ended with the introduction of portable engineering stations about 30 years ago.

Modern OT networks are often designed on the basis of the ISA 95 Standard with network zones and security devices, e.g. firewalls, to control the communications flow between the process control and SCADA systems across the zones. Modern production requires a lot of Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication between the production networks zones and between the production network and the business network. Besides this M2M communication Human-to-Machine (H2M) communication is required, e.g. for operator access from the business network and for remote maintenance.

For M2M and H2M interaction communication channels must be opened on the firewalls. With this, there is always a chance that malware can spread across such required connections. Furthermore, cyber attackers can gain access, e.g. through remotely exploitable vulnerabilities, after they hijacked a M2M communications endpoint in the business network. We dealt with this very effectively in the past 20 years.

Many of the required connections use the SMB protocol for exchange of data. That’s no problem per se. The problem is, that we still use Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 in the manufacturing industry which cannot work with the latest versions of the SMB protocol for data exchange.

Since WannaCry exploited a vulnerability in SMB version 1.0, it was only a matter of time before WannaCry would find its way across a required connection from the business network to the production network.

How to deal with the problem?

  • Priority patching.

The systems at the border between the business network and the production network must me patched with highest priority. Although this is somewhat tricky to achieve in WSUS, it’s worth to deal with this WSUS feature. In addition to the operating system components, all application components must be patched as well. The same applies to Linux based systems.

  • Deactivating SMB.

Is a great means in the case of an emergency, and part of a long-term data exchange strategy.

  • Set up asset and vulnerability management.

At least all systems at the endpoints of required M2M and H2M connections must be included. This enables you to evaluate the scale of the problem in the case of a new vulnerability.

  • Faster innovation cycles.

At least for the systems at the perimeter of the production network we must allow for shorter innovation cycles. With Windows 8, Windows 10, and Windows Server 2012, new versions of the SMB protocol are used which are not affected by WannaCry. Don’t forget to deactivate the SMB V1.0 compatibility in the this versions.

This includes the technology used for data exchange. For example, the widely used Robocopy fosters the spreading of WannaCry because it is based on the SMB protocol.

  • Increase the level of isolation.

Start with challenging the required M2M and H2M connections. Eliminate every connection without a business purpose. For the remaining, check whether the best available security technology is used.

Take care!

SambaCry – Keep Calm and Carry on

28 May 2017

Actually, it was only a matter of time until Samba, the popular implementation of the Windows SMB services on Linux and Unix, was hit by a WannyCry akin malware. All version of Samba from 3.5.0 onwards are vulnerable to CVE-2017-7494 or SambaCry.

The good news is that this vulnerability is complex to exploit: An attacker must upload a shared library with the malicious code to a writable samba share and then cause the server to load and execute it. Patches are available for the major Linux distributions.

How large is the problem? Shodan finds 471,578 systems which are exposed to the Internet.

SambaCry Shodan Map

SambaCry Shodan Map. Click to enlarge.

90% of the systems are operated in 3 countries, United Arab Emirates, Argentina, and Italy by the major telecommunication providers in these countries. Since an older version of Samba is used on this internet routers they are not vulnerable against SambaCry.

Most of the work has to be done in the United States and Germany. Although only 2 % of the affected systems are operated there, many organizations are affected.

Don’t panic! Even though many systems are affected by SambaCry this does not mean, that they are vulnerable against the exploit. Remember, you have to upload the malicious code to a writable Samba share on a server first. Under normal conditions, Linux admins don’t open Samba shares writable to everyone on servers exposed to the internet.

Thus, the best approach to reduce the risk is to check the Linux systems at the network perimeter with publicly available Samba shares and to close the writable, if any. As always, it is good to have an up-to-date system inventory in place. This will reduce the amount of work dramatically.

Take care! And don’t forget to check the network perimeter to your production networks.

WannaCry, Rumsfeld and Production Firewalls

21 May 2017

Today, Firewalls are the preferred means to separate a production network from a company’s intranet. Firewall configuration is performed by the Rumsfeld Conundrum: Block everything you don’t know!

Rumsfeld Conundrum for firewall configuration

Rumsfeld Conundrum for firewall configuration

For production management and IT and OT operations, we need some communication between systems in the company intranet and the production network. These required (known) connections are defined in the firewall rule base. The firewall allows communication between these known systems, and blocks any other connection attempts.

As long as the SMB V1.0 protocol is not used for communication across the firewall, the Rumsfeld Conundrum works pretty well.

Unfortunately, the SMB protocol is frequently used to implement required connections between Windows-based computers in the company intranet and the production network, e.g. for the exchange of manufacturing orders. With this, production systems become vulnerable to WannaCry although a firewall is in place because the firewall does not block communication across required connections. In the worst case, if WannaCry spreads across required connections to systems in the production network, this may result in loss of production.

Immediate action is required. The firewall rule base is a good starting point to determine how big the problem is, and to identify the systems that must be immediately patched or otherwise secured, if patching is not possible due to technical or regulatory restrictions.

Firewalls are an indispensable part of a defense in depth concept, but plain packet filtering is no effective means against attacks like WannaCry.

Have a good week, and take care of you production networks.

You may Wanna Cry on Monday morning if your Anti-Phishing Training was no success

14 May 2017

In the past days WannaCry was making the headlines. I found a really well written post on Binary Defense which explains the basics of the initial infection as well as the propagation method.

WannaCry does not use any heavy sophistication methods for delivery. It first uses a password protected zip file, which has a document inside.

Packaged this way anti-malware solutions cannot scan the attachment because they can’t enter the password for opening the attachment, although it is stated in the email body. Even APT (Advanced Persistent Threat) solutions may fail if they are not properly configured.

If your Anti-Phishing Awareness Training was successful, the chance of an infection is small.

In addition, it makes sense to block incoming mails with zip files, which cannot be inspected by the anti-malware solution. Don’t deliver them to the users junk mail folder, block them on the mail gateway.

This gives you the time to implement patch MS17-010, if you have not yet done so. Or isolate the affected systems from the network, if patching is not possible, e.g. in GxP controlled environments.

Take care!